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2017年11月22日 05:17:33来源:兰州晨报


  • Surely even Charles could see that?难道查理没能看透这一切吗Surely that would be an end to the bloodshed and the country could return to reasonableness?难道这还不能结束那段杀戮 让国家重新步入有序吗And there were many in parliament aching for just this 而议会中的许多人仍有一个眼中钉a settlement that would allow Charles to keep his throne,停战协议保留了查尔斯的王位some kind of return to what had been on the table back in 1642.这似乎又回到了1642年谈判前的局面Surely, after all the blunders and bloodshed,难道经历了这些错误与伤亡the botched coups and the futile slaughters,he would do the right thing, he would share power?拙劣的政变和无谓的厮杀之后 他还不愿意认清形势 交出部分权力吗But Charles was constitutionally incapable of being a constitutional king.但查理本身决定了 他做不成立宪君主He gagged at the idea of being reduced to a subaltern monarch,taking, not giving, orders.他不愿做听命于上尉的君主 从而不是发布命令The war might be over, for now,but for Charles the plotting was not.也许战争已经告一段落 但对查尔斯来说 密谋仍在进行For the next two years, in a bid to reverse his defeat,接下来的两年里 查尔斯企图扭转乾坤Charles tried to play off parliament against the army,他试图让议会与军队为敌the army against parliament,and the Scots against both.让军队与议会为敌 让苏格兰成为双方共同的敌人Oliver Cromwell finally realised that as long as Charles was around,奥利弗·克伦威尔终于意识到 只要查理还在he was always going to be a rallying point for the discontented,and there were bound to be a lot of them.他就必将集结那些不安现状的人 而这类人不在少数But Cromwell was also enraged by Charless presumption at defying the verdict of God,同时查理肆意违抗上帝的裁决 激怒了克伦威尔so clearly revealed at the battles of Marston Moor and Naseby.马斯顿荒原和纳斯比战役就是最好的明It was evident then that King Charles had to go.很显然 查理必须离开Whether or not he had to die, that was another matter.无论如何他都要死 这又是一桩大事 /201703/500060
  • In an entirely natural world without any supernatural mysteries,在一个没有任何超自然神迹的完全自然的世界中you can explain the mind, the human mind, conciousness.你可以解释思想 人类思想 意识Its been my project for 50 years.这是我研究了50年的课题 我意识到And what Ive come to realize is that the only way to do it right is you have to take evolution a lot more seriously我开始意识到唯一能很好地研究这一课题的方式是你必须更加认真地看待演变and really look hard at the question of how evolution couldve gotten these wonderful projects up and running,真正用心得看待演变进化是如何使得一些精的事物出现 并开始运转的that have now lead to people like you and me如何创造出像我们现在的人类的and all the great artistic geniuses and scientific geniuses,以及所有那些伟大的艺术天才以及科学专家the real intelligent designers that now inhabit the planet这些现存于这个星球的真正的智慧设计者instead of the imaginary intelligent designer who never existed.而不是那个从未存在过的想象出来的智慧设计者For millennia, people had it in mind that all the wonderful things they saw in the world,几千年来人们根深蒂固地认为 他们在这世上见到的一切美好事物or all the beautiful design of the animals and plants and living things所有动物 植物 各种生物的精妙设计must be due to a fabulously intelligent designer, a creator.必定是来自一位拥有惊人智慧的设计者 一个创世者And so wasnt until Darwin came along and turned that upside down,直到达尔文出现 推翻这一切and realized that in principle, there could be a process然后意识到 原则上 这可能有个过程with no intelligence, no comprehension, no foresight, no purpose,这里面没有智慧 没有理解 没有预知 没有目的that would just inexorably grind out algorithmically它只是不可抗拒地 演算式地机械生产出better and batter and better designs of all sorts越来越好 越来越好的 各种事物的设计and create the living world where there would have been just lifeless matter before.并创造出这个充满生机的世界 在此之前这里原本只有非生物存在And this was a shocking idea to many people.这对很多人来说是个令他们震惊的观点Even to Darwin in some regards it was shocking.即便是对达尔文本人 某些方面也是震惊的But he was right. He had the essentials right.但他是正确的 他的核心是正确的And now, 150 years later, theres just no question about it. He was right.在150年后的今天 再没有人怀疑这点 他是正确的And were filling in the details with a breathtaking pace.并且我们以惊人的速度为这一理论填充着细节So that was the first great inversion, a strange inversion of reasoning.以上就是第一个伟大的倒置——一个“奇怪的推理倒置”And its much about it in recent years, by what I call Alan Turings strange inversion of reasoning.最近几年而我称之为“阿兰·图灵的奇怪推理倒置”出现了When Turing came along, computers were people. That was a job.在图灵的年代 “计算机”是人 那是一种工作What do you do for a living? Im a computer.你做什么工作谋生?我是个“计算机”。And these are human beings, typically they were math majors.这些都是人类 尤其是数学专业的And they were hired to compute various functions, tables, logarithms, celestial navigation tables, and so forth.他们被雇佣来计算各种函数 表格 对数 天体导航表等等What Turing realized was, you didnt have to be intelligent, you didnt have to comprehend, you could make a device,图灵发现的是你不需要智慧 也不需要理解 你只需制造一套设备which did all the things that the human computers were doing with all the intelligence and all the understanding laundered out of it,这套设备不具备理解力 也不具备任何智慧 但是它能够跟人类一样计算上述的东西except for the most minimal sort of mechanical quasi understanding.它只是具有那些最基本的机械的“类理解”All it had to do was to be able to tell a zero from a one, or a hole in a punch tape from no hole in a punch tape.它只需要能分辨0和1 或者穿孔纸带上有没有一个孔A very simple discriminator, put it together with the right logic,它是一个非常简单的区分器 只是按正确的逻辑被组装了起来and you have a Universal Turing Machine, which can compute anything computable.你就得到了一个通用图灵机 它能够计算一切人类可计算的东西And that was the birth of the computer.这就是计算机的诞生And the two strange inversions fit together beautifully.这两个“奇怪倒置”能完美地结合在一起What they show, and this is still strange to people, is what I call competence without comprehension.他们展现出的事实对人们而言仍然很奇怪 我称之为“不需要理解的能力”We tend to think the reason we send our children to university is我们总是认为我们将孩子送到大学的目的是so that they can acquire comprehension which we view as the source of competence.使他们获取“理解” 我们将它视作“能力”的的来源Its out of that will of comprehension that they acquire the competence as they do.出于获得“理解”的愿望 他们就这样获得了“能力”And we look down our noses at wrote learning and drill and practice我们看不起书面学习 反复操练和实践练习because thats…thats just competence, we want comprehension.因为它们…它们只是“能力” 而我们想要的是“理解”And what Turing and Darwin in a very similar way showed is, ;No, thats just backwards.;而图灵和达尔文展示出的相似的观点正是 “不,一切正好相反”Comprehension is an effect of multiple competences, not itself a source, an independent source of competence.“理解”是复合“能力” 的结果体现而非它自己是来源 它不是“能力”的一个独立的来源So thats the second strange inversion.以上就是第二个“奇怪的倒置”If we want to look at human minds we have to add another source of evolutionary power.如果我们要研究人类思想 我们就得研究另一种演变力量的来源And thats cultural evolution.那就是文化演变We dont get all our intelligence from our genes, in fact relatively little, all things considered.我们的智慧并非都来自基因 通观全部 事实上还相对较少And heres where Turings ideas really come in handy because这正是图灵的观点格外好用之处 因为if you take Richard Dawkinss idea of the meme as a unit of cultural evolution,假设你采用理查德·道金斯的观点 将文化基因视为文化演变的一种单元and you take Turings idea about a programmable computer, and you put them together,你又采用图灵关于可编程计算机的观点 然后把它们结合起来you get the idea of a meme as a thing made of information.你就得到了“文化基因是一种由信息构成的东西”的观点Its like an app which you download to your ;necktop;.它就像是你下载到你的“颈上电脑”的一个应用And its, a brain filled with apps is a mind, is a human mind.进而一个装满了“应用”的大脑就是人类思想了And if you dont download all the apps youre not going to be able to think very well.如果你不下载所有“应用” 那么你将无法好好思考Thats why no creature on the planet, however intelligent they are in some regards,这就是为什么这个星球上没有哪种生物 无论它们某方面有多聪明they cant hold a candle to us because they cant download the apps of culture它们还没法递根蜡烛给我们 因为它们不能下载文化的“应用”because they dont have, basically they dont have a language.因为它们没有…… 最基本的 它们没有语言And its language, which is itself composed of memes, words or memes.而文化其自身就是由“文化基因”组成 词语或文化基因Its language that is the backbone of cultural evolution.文化演变的脊梁骨正是语言And what it permits is for cultural evolution to become ever less Darwinian, ever more intelligent.它使得文化演变得以越来越不达尔文 而越来越智能And now were living in the age of intelligent design.而我们如今正生活在智能时代We have scientists and engineers and artists and musicians and composers,我们有科学家 工程师 艺术家 音乐家 作曲家all these wonderful designers of wonderful things, of poems, bridges, airplanes, theories…他们是诗歌 桥梁 飞机 和理论等所有这些美好事物的缔造者And they are intelligent designers.他们都拥有智慧But if you want to know how they manage to have that intelligence,但如果你想知道他们如何达到这样的智慧you have to go back and look at their brains.你就得回过头去看他们的大脑As ultimately like Turings Turing Machines, theyre composed of actually trillions of million parts, theyre all just as stupid as posts.简直像图灵制造出来的计算街一样 它们由兆亿个部件构成 每一个部件都像木桩子一样蠢They dont understand a thing. They dont have to understand a thing.这些部件什么都不懂 它们也什么都不需要懂You put them together in the right way and you get comprehension, and eventually consciousness.你将它们以正确的方式组装到一起 你就得到了“理解” 并最终得到“意识”201706/513886
  • 栏目简介:The Shanghai Consumer Council says many car dealerships in town dont list transparent prices on vehicles. And some charge customers extra fees after promising an attractive price. Yuan Chenyue has more.201707/515526
  • Russias ambassador to Turkey was assassinated in Ankara on Monday evening.俄罗斯驻土耳其大使周一晚上在安卡拉遇刺身亡。Andrey Karlov was attending the opening of an art exhibition when a gunman shot him. Karlov was later pronounced dead.卡尔洛夫遭杀时正在参加一个艺术展览开幕。卡尔洛夫随后被宣布死亡。According to various reports, the gunman yelled, ;Dont forget Aleppo. Dont forget Syria.; The gunman, who Turkish officials identified as an off-duty police officer, was ;neutralized.; Some outlets are reporting he was killed. 根据各种报道,手喊着:“勿忘阿勒颇。勿忘叙利亚。”手被制,土耳其官员认定是一名休班警察。一些网站报道他被杀了。Both Turkish and Russian officials have called the incident a ;terror attack.;土耳其和俄罗斯官员都称这次事件为“恐怖袭击”。Karlov had served as the Russian ambassador to Turkey since July 2013. He was married and had a son. 卡尔洛夫自2013年7月担任俄罗斯驻土耳其大使。他结婚了,有一个儿子。Relations between the two nations have been strained. Turkey shot down a Russian military jet in November 2015. 两国关系一直很紧张。土耳其于2015年11月击落俄罗斯一架军用飞机。And The two nations have supported opposing sides of the Syrian War. It was recently reported that Russia and Turkey planned to meet to continue to work toward a peace deal in Syria.这两个国家持叙利亚战争的敌对双方。最近有报道称,俄罗斯和土耳其计划会面,继续致力于在叙利亚达成和平协议.。译文属。201612/484887
  • Bede sees without any starry-eyed sentimentality what could overcome the deep mistrust of the pagan kings比德总能理智地思考 如何才能除去异教国王深埋心中的疑虑when asked to abandon their traditional gods.让他们能够摒弃传统的神祗According to the most touching speech in Bedes entire history,根据比德演讲史上最动人心弦的一场演说the clinching moment of persuasion for one noble was nothing more than a gamblers bet.对于一个贵族而言 最脆弱的时刻 莫过于他赌上自己的前身后世之时It seems to me, my Lord,that the present life of men on earth is as though a sparrow in winter should come to a house and swiftly fly through it,陛下 在我看来 一个人现世的生活 就好似一只麻雀 在隆冬进入一间暖屋 转瞬之间便穿堂而过entering at one window and then passing out through another,while you sit at dinner with your captains in a hall made warm with a great fire,从一扇窗中进入 自另一扇飞出 当你在此和你的部下们围火而坐 尽享美食while outside are the raging tempests of winter rain and snow.而外面却值严冬 狂风大作雨雪交加For that short time it be within the house,the bird feels no smart of the winter storm,在这房中短促的时间内 鸟对窗外的寒冬毫无预警but soon passes again from winter back to winter and escapes your sight.但很快地便会飞出 从严寒中来 往严寒中去 脱离你的视线So the life of man here appears for a little season,but what follows or has gone before,that surely we do not know.人的一生也不过转瞬 而我们从哪里来 最终要到哪里去 我们无从得知Wherefore if this new learning has brought us any certainty,methinks it is worthy to be followed.因此 若这道理有任何启发作用 在我看来都是值得遵从的It typical of Bede put these words in the mouth of a nobleman.比德惯于借由贵族之口说出此番话语The church in Anglo-Saxon England was just really a branch of the aristocracy.盎格鲁-撒克逊时期的英格兰 教会不过是贵族统治的一小分St Wilfred, the aristocratic Bishop of York,deliberately used part of Hadrians Wall约克郡的贵族主教圣威尔弗雷德 特意借用哈德良长城一隅to build at Hexham a basilica worthy of Roman authority.在赫克瑟姆 建起了足以匹配罗马权贵的长方形大教堂 /201607/454273
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